The Volcanoes of Indonesia

Indonesia’s seismic and volcanic activity is among the world’s highest. Here are some of the most dangerous and unpredictable volcanoes. This, along with the tropical climate, featuring monsoonal and dry season, the diverse fauna and flora, makes the archipelago a great destination for explorers and lovers of exotic activities.

With so many dense forests, mangroves, and coral reefs, one can call Indonesia a true paradise on Earth. The archipelago has the second highest level of biodiversity after Brazil. Although the numbers and distribution of large species such as the tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, elephant, and leopard have dwindled drastically, the forests still approximately 60% of the country.

Indonesia’s location on the edges of the Pacific, Eurasian, and Australian tectonic plates makes it the site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Among the more than 150 active volcanoes are Krakatoa and Tambora, both famous for their devastating eruptions in the 19th century. The eruption of the Toba supervolcano, approximately 70,000 years ago, was one of the largest eruptions ever, and a global catastrophe. Recent disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 tsunami that killed an estimated 167,736 in northern Sumatra, and the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006. However, volcanic ash is a major contributor to the high agricultural fertility that has historically sustained the high population densities of Java and Bali.

The Toba supervolcanic eruption, one of the Earth’s largest known eruptions, occurred some time between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago at Lake Toba. The related catastrophe theory holds that this event plunged the planet into a 6-to-10-year volcanic winter and possibly an additional 1,000-year cooling episode. This change in temperature resulted in the world’s human population being reduced to 10,000 or even a mere 1,000 breeding pairs, creating a bottleneck in human evolution.

No matter how grim these theories may appear, the tourism of Indonesia is recovering. You can use the cheap international calls to Indonesia to plan your adventurous trip.

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September 14, 2011 | Author: | Posted in Cheap Calls

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